Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Hosted By

21st Congress of International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and
Research (IAHR), Asia Pacific Division (APD), in conjunction with 6th Regional Conference
on Natural Disaster (RCND), Yogyakarta, INDONESIA, 2-5 September 2018

"Multi-perspective Water for Sustainable Development"

City Tour

A city tour and technical tour will be conducted during the congress implementation.

The timeline and location of the city tour and technical visit are illustrated as follows.

City Tour

Monday 3 September 2018 (15:00 – 19:30)

Updated 30 August 2018

Time Description
15:00 Departure from Royal Ambarukmo (refreshment in box)
15:00 – 15:30 Travel to UGM Campus
15:30 – 16:00 Arrived at UGM Campus, Group Photo Session
16:00 – 16:30 Travel to Kotagede
16:30 – 17:30 Silver Handicraft Village in Kotagede
17:30– 18:00 Travel to Malioboro Street
18:00 – 19:00 Malioboro Street, Fort of Vredeburg, Gedung Agung, Zero Km
19:00– 19:30 Travel back to Royal Ambarukmo Hotel
19:30 Arrived at Royal Ambarukmo Hotel (for dinner)

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) was established on 19 December 1949, as a state and national university. Considered one of the oldest universities in Indonesia, it serves as a pillar of educational awakening in Indonesia, and purports to be a defender and disseminator of Pancasila. UGM headquarters is located in the Bulaksumur Campus, Yogyakarta. As of today, UGM has 18 faculties, a vocational school, and a graduate school, offering more than 251 courses. UGM’s mission is inspired by the spirit of Tri Dharma of Higher Education (Tri Dharma Perguruan Tinggi), comprised of Teaching, Research, and Community Services. More than 56,000 students, both domestic and international, are studying at UGM in a myriad of vocational, undergraduate, and graduate programs. The UGM Central Building called the Balairung UGM was the first modern building in Indonesia, inaugurated by the first President, Soekarno on 19 December 1959. It has the indische style with large pillars and solid round poles. Its grandeur reminds us of the greatness of Majapahit led by duke ‘Gadjah Mada’.

Fort of Vredeburg

Vredeburg fort was built in 1760 on the order of the Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono I and the request of the Dutch government which was then led by Nicholaas Harting who served as a governor of the Director of the Java North Coast. The first goal of the fort is to keep the security of the palace. However, the real intention of the existence of this fort is to facilitate the supervision of the Dutch against all activities conducted by the Yogyakarta. The fort construction was very simple as its wall just made from soil supported by poles from coconut wood and palm trees, with a thatch roof. The building was built with a square shape with the four corners as Séléka or bastion. Sri Sultan HB IV named the four corners as Jaya Wisesa (northwest corner), Jaya Purusa (northeast corner), Jaya Prakosaningprang (southwest corner), and Jaya Prayitna (southeast corner).

In the next period, the Dutch governor, WH Van Ossenberg proposed that the fortress was built more permanent for the purpose to make it secure. In 1767, the construction of the fortress started under the supervision of a Dutch architect named Ir. Frans Haak and completed in 1787. Once construction was completed, the fort was named “Rustenburg” which means fortress for resting. In 1867, there was a great earthquake in Yogyakarta and resulted in many buildings collapsed, including Rustenburg. Then, immediately afterwards, Rustenburg was rebuilt and renamed into “Vredeburg” that means fort of peace. It is a form of symbolic manifestation of peace between the Netherlands and the Sultan. Vredeburg is located at zero kilometer area of Yogyakarta, lies in area of about 46,574 square meters. In 1987, the Fort Museum was opened for public, which the land status is belongs to the Palace. In 23rd November 1993, officially the name of Vredeburg Fort Museum Yogyakarta was changed into Museum of Nation Struggle Fort Vredeburg Yogyakarta The Fort Vredeburg is surrounded by ancient buildings of Dutch relic such as Great House/Gedung Agung (former home of the resident, now as Presidential Palace, located right in front of Vredeburg), Ngejaman church (GPIB Margamulya), Senisono building (fused with the Great House), BNI Office in 1946, Post Office, Bank of Indonesia and Societeit Militaire..

Silver Handicraft Village in Kotagede

Kotagede is a historic neighborhood in Yogyakarta, contains the remains of the first capital of Mataram Sultanate which was established in the 16th century. Some of the remains of the old Kotagede include the palace, the royal cemetery, the royal mosque and defensive walls and moats. Kotagede is well known internationally for its silver crafts. Kotagede silversmiths grew since the establishment of Kotagede as the capital of Mataram. During that time, the traditional silver, gold and copper industries began to develop, dominated by the use of repoussé (embossing) techniques. Initially, the products of this region were to fulfill the need of household and ceremonial equipment for the royal family. During the colonial period of the 1930s, silverworks and silver handicrafts prospered in Kotagede.

The Dutch colonial government established the Stichting Beverding van het Yogyakarta Kent Ambacht to protect the silverwork of Kotagede. Kotagede’s silverware is characterized with its floral motifs, e.g. leaf or lotus flower, based from the Hindu tradition; and their manual labor, kept historically authentic. Types of silverware produced by Kotagede are filigrees, silver-casting, sculptures (miniatures), and handmade jewelry products (necklaces, bracelet, and rings).

Technical Visit

Tuesday 4 September 2018 (13:00 – 18:30)

Time Description
13:00 Departure from Royal Ambarukmo Hotel
13:00 – 14:00 Travel to Mount Merapi
14:00 – 14:30 Site observation at Merapi area (Kali Gendol)
14:30 – 15:30 Travel to Muntilan
15:30 – 17:30 Drainage system of World Culture Heritage of Borobudur Temple
17:30 – 18:30 Travel back to Royal Ambarukmo Hotel
18:30 Arrived in Royal Ambarukmo Hotel (for Gala Dinner at 19:00)

2010 Mt. Merapi Eruption (Gendol River)

Mt. Merapi, one of the most active volcanoes in the world, produces primary disasters through pyroclastic flow, lava flow, ash fall and rock fall. While secondary disaster occurs as cold-lahar debris flow which is controlled also by the hydro-climatological behavior (average annual rainfall ranged from 2500 to 3000 mm, with relative humidity of 80-90%). Mt. Merapi small scale eruption usually occurs every two years, while relatively large scale eruptions took place in a decade such as 1994 and 2006.
Recently, the most prominent huge eruption occurs in late October to early November 2010, which stated as the largest and most explosive eruptions in 20th and 21st century, with 400 casualties, more than 300,000 evacuees (Surono et al., 2012) and materials produced of more than 130 million m3.
Almost all rivers that originated from the summit of Mt. Merapi were affected by the 2010 huge eruption with varying degree of damages (Legono and Rahardjo, 2017).  Gendol River, where the upstream originated from Kali Adem near summit, flows to Yogyakarta in south-south-east (SSE) direction across the national roads, important infrastructures, settlement, runway of the airport and the World Culture Heritage Prambanan Temple. In 3 November 2010 early morning, the pyroclastic flow (hot lava approx. 700°C) flowed through Gendol River with the longest travel distance recorded of about 16 km from summit of Mt. Merapi.
Although there are about 8 checkdams located at the upper Gendol River (Kali Adem) to reduce the impact of sediment disasters, it has been observed that Gendol River poses severe impact due to the 2010 eruption. However, such huge eruption leaves huge sediment volumes in several rivers with high economic value, particularly taken and used for construction building materials. Thus, excessive sand and gravel mining activities are of inevitable.


Drainage System of World Culture Heritage of Borobudur Temple

The actual drainage system of Borobudur Temple is draining the water around temple through water-spout ornaments called Jaladwara (Gargoyle image – underwater mystical creature). In Borobudur Temple, there are 3 variant of Jaladwara that spread all over the temple area: (1) Antefiks in Pagar Langkan Terrace, (2) Kala head in Pagar Langkan aisle 2, 3, 4 and 5, and (3) Makara which is sustained by Gana on the first Pagar Langkan aisle.
The Jaladwara old system caused water infiltrate to the soil-base foundation of temple, leak to the outside of temple through the space of rock’s crack and cause to emerge microorganism and other rock’s problem. On first restoration in 1911-1914, the old drainage system in Borobudur was still used by van Erp. Even so, he adds more spaces on the rock’s gap in Aruphadatu floor, aisle and the temple’s terrace. The aisle also changed to be more sloping to drain water outside the temple directly through the Jaladwara. This system had been used until the second restoration in 1973-1983. The new main drainage system is now carried out through installed pipeline inside the temple and coated by waterproof, while the Jaladwara became the second option.

In cooperation with